Want to Learn About Sake? My Sake Guide For Beginners

Today is World Sake Day. Kanpai! Sake is a drink I’ve been learning more about over recent years and I’ve come to really appreciate it. I seek out new sakes whenever I can.

Here’s my beginner’s guide to sake.

shutterstock_197942948 shutterstock_242208511
shutterstock_300266855 shutterstock_252428479
Images from


What is Sake?

Sake is a Japanese alcohol made from rice.

Although it is referred to in English as rice wine, the process is more akin to brewing beer, where you convert starch to sugar and then convert the resulting sugar to alcohol. In wine making, it is a simpler process of converting sugars that are already present in the fruit. Of course, brewing sake is not entirely like beer making either as the sake production process is quite distinct.

Wine is typically around 10-15% ABV. Beer is usually lower, with most beers coming in between 3-8%, though there’s been a trend towards ever stronger beers lately. Sake is brewed to around 18-20%, but often diluted to around 15% for bottling.

Until a few years ago I’d only ever encountered cheap sake served warm and was not a huge fan. However, since trying higher quality sakes served chilled, I’m an absolute convert.

In terms of typical flavours, my vocabulary is woefully lacking, but for me the core flavour is a subtly floral one – perhaps this flavour is intrinsic to rice and rice mould? The balance of sweetness and acidity varies though classic sake is not super sweet. Sometimes it is fruity and sometimes it has a more umami (savoury) taste. I am often able to detect clear differences on the palate but unable to define them in words – clearly I need to drink more sake!

How is Sake made?

Sake is made from rice, but usually from varieties with a larger, stronger grain that has lower levels of protein than the rice varieties that are typically eaten.

The starch sits within the centre of the rice grain, surrounded by a layer of bran, so rice is usually polished to remove the outer layer before being made into sake. The more the rice is polished, the higher the percentage of starchy centre remains, but of course this is more expensive as it needs far more rice to produce the same volume of alcohol.

After polishing and being set aside to rest, the rice is washed, soaked and steamed. kōji rice mould (Aspergillus oryzae) is sprinkled over the rice which is left to ferment for several days. This mould helps to develop the amylase enzyme necessary to convert starch to sugar. Next, water and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) are added and the mixture is allowed to incubate. Water and yeast are added multiple times during the process. The resulting mash then ferments at 15-20 °C for a few weeks.

After fermentation, the mixture is strained or pressed to extract the liquid, and the solids may be pressed again to extract a fuller range of flavours.

In cheaper sakes, varying amounts of brewer’s alcohol are added to increase the volume.

Sake is usually filtered again and then pasteurised before resting and maturing, then dilution with water before being bottled.

These days you can also find unpasteurised sake and sake in which the finer lees (sediment) are left in. I’ve even had some very thick and cloudy sakes where some of the solids have been pureed and mixed back in to the final drink.

What are the different categories of Sake?

Because the most desirable bit of the rice is the core of the grain, the amount of polishing is highly relevant to the quality and characteristics of sake. For all Tokutei Meisho-shu (specially designated sake), labels must indicate the seimai-buai (remaining percentage) of the original grain.

Daiginjo means that at least 50% of the original rice grain must be polished away (so that 50% or less remains) and also that the ginjo-tsukuri method – fermenting at cooler temperatures – has been used. There are additional regulations on which varieties of rice and types of yeast may be used and other production method restrictions.

Ginjo is pretty much the same but stipulates that at least 40% of the original rice is removed by polishing (so that 60% or less remains).

Pure sake – that is sake made only from rice, koi and water – is labelled as Junmai. If it doesn’t state junmai on the label, this indicates that additional brewers’ alcohol has been added. So a sake labelled Junmai daiginjo is the highest grade in terms of percentage of rice polished away and is a pure sake with no brewer’s alcohol added.

Coming down the scale a little, Tokubetsu means that the sake is still classed as ‘special quality’, with up to 60% of the rice grain being retained, as per Ginjo, but production methods are different, especially when it comes to fermentation temperatures. Tokebetsu junmai means the sake is pure whereas Tokebetsu honjozo means the sake has had alcohol added.

Honjozo on its own means that the sake is still rated above ordinary sake, but the rice is polished to remove at least 30% of the bran, leaving up to 70% of the original rice grain.

Futsu-shu (non-designated sake) is the equivalent of “table wine” in France, and can vary in quality from good to poor.

Note that most sake is diluted to about 15% ABV (alcohol by volume) before bottling.

What are the different types of sake?

Namazake is unpasteurised sake. Most sake is heated to pasteurise before being bottled. In contrast, namazake is considered a fresh product, and needs to be kept chilled.

Genshu is undiluted sake, usually 17-20% ABV.

Muroka has been pressed and separated from the lees as usual but has not been carbon filtered. It is clear rather than cloudy but often has some colour to it.

Nigorizake is cloudy rather than clear – the sake is passed only through a loose mesh or coarse cloth to separate the liquid from the mash. It is not filtered. There is usually a lot of sediment remaining and it is common to shake the bottle to mix it back into the liquid before serving.

Koshu is sake that has been aged for at least two years or more. It develops rich flavours, somewhat like sherry, with a nutty or spicy flavour profile.

Taruzake is aged in wooden barrels or casks made from sugi, sometimes called Japanese cedar. The wood imparts quite a strong flavour and fragrance to the sake.

Kuroshu is made from completely unpolished brown rice grains. I’ve not tried it but apparently it’s more like Chinese rice wine than Japanese sake.

Amazake can be low- or no-alcohol depending on the recipe. One way of making it is to add rice mould to whole cooked rice, allowing the koji to break down the rice starch into sugars, with the result then mixed with water. Another method is to mix sake lees (solids left over from sake production) with water – additional sugar can be added to enhance the sweetness. Amazake is served hot or cold; the hot version usually has a little grated ginger provided to be stirred in to taste. I wrote about Amazake in this post, after we tried it in Kyoto during our first visit to Japan.

Sparkling, Sweet and Flavoured Sakes have become increasingly popular as sake brands look for ways to appeal to new demographics to widen their customer base. In Japan sparkling and sweet sakes are often marketed to women but I would recommend them to all as a light, refreshing and summery alternative to the classic styles. Fruit options, such as peach, plum and yuzu are also popular.


I hope this guide helps you to understand more about this wonderful drink and you are encouraged to seek it out and try for yourself.

If you are interested to read more about Japanese food and drink and travelling in Japan, please check out my other Japan posts.


Please leave a comment - I love hearing from you!
42 Comments to "Want to Learn About Sake? My Sake Guide For Beginners"

  1. Camilla

    How fascinating makes you wonder how anyone ever thought to make alcohol our of rice. Maybe someone should try this with wheat?


    Camilla – that would be wheat beer, it’s an ancient drink! These days barley is used more commonly for beer.

  2. Choclette

    I tried some sake at Japanese friends a couple of years ago and was bowled over. it was really good. Up until then I’d only had stuff that took the roof of your mouth off. Great post Kavey.


    Yeah my first tastes were the same, cheat stuff and rough, so not very nice. And served warm which is not something I like anyway.

  3. kaveyeats

    No one has to like everything so it may just be that you don’t like it. For me, my first tastes were cheap stuff served warm, which definitely doesn’t represent sake very well in my opinion.

  4. kaveyeats

    Completely agree. While there are some high quality sakes that are served warm I think warming is often used to mask cheap ones. That was my first experience too!

  5. kaveyeats

    I think if you like gin, you may find you enjoy sake. They are completely different but at same time, both are about subtle aromas on the nose and subtle flavours on the palate. Gin is obviously more about the botanicals, the herbs and spices and berries. Sake has no added botanicals but has some wonderful floral and fruit notes that seem to come from the rice, rice mould and yeast.

  6. Katie Bryson

    This is fascinating Kavey, as I’ve often wondered about Sake. I’ve never tried it as it’s never seemed that appealing, but this guide has opened my eyes! Thanks 🙂


    Thanks Katie, really pleased you found it interesting. Hope you will come to try and enjoy sake soon!

  7. Helen Cormack

    I really must give this a try . I am not keen on any type of beer and much prefer clear spirits such as gin or vodka . I do love trying new things so when the opportunity arises I will no make an informed choice and give it a go ! Thank you ?


    Exactly the same as me, I’m not a beer drinker but like the same clear spirits you do.

  8. Elizabeth

    A very informative post, thank you! I actually went to my cupboard to see what my bottle of sake said, but it’s all in Japanese so I can’t read it, lol! Looking forward to taste testing.


    I’ve had fairly good luck using the google translate app, the one that allows you to take a photo with your phone camera and it then identifies text and translates what it can.

  9. Julianna Barnaby

    Great piece Kavey – so detailed. It’s 11.30am so a little early to go away and try some sake immediately but this post made me want to! I do like Sake but only ever drink it once every few years and without really knowing much about it. Will take a different approach in the future.


    Haaaa, a little early on a weekday, eh? I’m really pleased this piece will help you approach sake in a fresh way! Thanks for your comment!

  10. Laura@howtocookgoodfood

    I adore sake, love it both ice cold and warm and I think I have had one that;’s slightly fizzy which I was lucky enough to try at a sake tasting a couple of years sago. I need to get myself some at The Japan centre!


    Oh I really like sparkling sakes, and I completely omitted the sweet sparkling sakes that many breweries are now offering. I may amend to add that in. Thanks for the reminder!

  11. kaveyeats

    I like that too but I tend to consider it as akin to babycham in relation to good quality wine! I love good classic sakes best though!

  12. Karly

    I love sake, but one year someone added chambord to mine and it took it to a whole new level. I don’t drink it any other way now, ha ha ha!


    Haaaa, I love Chambord! I would think the predominant flavour would be from the Chambord rather than the sake, though? Not sure the sake flavours would come through? I must try it!

  13. Julie

    Great information! I’m always very careful with Sake because I know it can sneak up on you. We love Chambord in Champagne too!


    Most of it is similar in alcohol level to table wine, so not as strong as spirits like vodka and gin, but still can sneak up on you!


Please leave a comment - I love hearing from you!

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *